An electric connector is an electro-mechanical tool whose mission is to quickly and easily disconnect or interrupt a circuit path. Connectors are created in a diversity of sizes, shapes, complexities, and quality levels. Their purpose dictates their design, and different features are included to adjust the ease of connection, mating type, durability, insulation between pins, etc. Also, because many connectors must perform their job in rugged circumstances, their composition is usually adjusted to protect from vibrations, extreme temperatures, dirt, water, contaminants, and more.
Numerous types of connectors can be used for an extensive range of purposes. Some can be employed where a single connection is needed, while others can be utilized where a considerable number of connections are required.
The designations and parameters seen in connector datasheets represent the essential data required to choose the connector. There are many terminologies and specifications associated with connectors. They combine;
Plugs and sockets
One of the fundamental concepts of connectors is that there are two distinct formats for them. One is the plug (male), and the other is the mating half that`s the socket, receptacle, or female section. The plug has pins, and these are usually exposed, and consequently, they are never employed to supply power. This would indicate that if not connected, the accessible pins would be live, and there would be an important risk of them getting shorted. Instead, the female connector can supply power. The contacts in the female connector are more shielded, and consequently, it is more secured to have power on them while there is no mating connection.
Number of Pins:
When selecting a connector, it is essential to examine the number of pins that will be needed for your application. This could not only determine the actual connector part but the series of the connector to be employed as well.
Number of insertions
Every connector has a limited life. Usually, the life of a connector is defined in terms of the number of mating cycles, for example, a connection and disconnection. Some connectors are created to allow a piece of equipment to be assembled and then are designed only to be disconnected for service and repair; they may only have a small number of mating cycles. Others, for more general use, will have a much larger number. This designation can affect the kind of connector preferred for demanding purposes.
There are different mechanical considerations when selecting connectors. Physical size and shape is a significant factor, but it is also important to keep in mind that there may also be environmental requirements.
It is crucial to consider that there is a maximum operating voltage for connectors. Above a specific voltage, it is dangerous to operate a connector. While essentially all connectors will be suitable for low voltages when they rise to what may be termed dangerous voltages, consideration needs to be taken as insulation may fail, or there may be flashover.
When connectors mate, there is a specific level of friction between the contacts. This allows a good connection to be made, and the contacts to be cleaned. For many small connectors, this does not represent a problem. But for many larger connector models with a large number of pins, the force per contact is multiplied by the number of pins utilized, and this could result in a large amount of energy being needed to connect and disconnect the connectors.
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